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# PWR054: Consider applying vectorization to scalar reduction loop

### Issue#

The loop containing a `scalar reduction` pattern can be made faster by using vectorization.

### Actions#

Implement a version of the scalar reduction loop using an Application Program Interface (API) that enables vectorization. Codee assists the programmer by providing source code rewriting capabilities using compiler directives provided by OpenMP standard, GNU compiler, LLVM compiler and Intel compiler.

### Relevance#

Vectorizing a loop is one of the ways to speed it up. Vectorization is widely used in modern computers, but writing vectorized code is not straightforward. Essentially, the programmer must explicitly specify how to execute the loop in vector mode on the hardware, as well as add the appropriate synchronization to avoid race conditions at runtime. Typically, the compiler does a good job in vectorization, so the biggest challenge is to vectorize loops manually beyond the capabilities of the compiler.

Note
Vectorizing scalar reduction loops incurs an overhead due to the synchronization needed to avoid race conditions and ensure the correctness of the code. Note appropriate data scoping of shared and private variables is still a must.

### Code examples#

Have a look at the following code snippet:

``````#include <stdio.h>

double example(double *A, int n) {
double sum = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
sum += A[i];
}
printf("%f", sum);
return sum;
}
``````

The loop body has a `scalar reduction` pattern, meaning that each iteration of the loop reduces its computational result to a single value, in this case `sum`. Thus, two different iterations can potentially update the value of the scalar sum, which creates a potential race condition that must be handled through appropriate synchronization.

The code snippet below shows an implementation that uses the OpenMP compiler directives to vectorize the loop explicitly. Note the synchronization added to avoid race conditions.

``````#include <stdio.h>

double example(double *A, int n) {
double sum = 0;
#pragma omp simd reduction(+: sum)
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
sum += A[i];
}
printf("%f", sum);
return sum;
}
``````